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Bar Course Aptitude Test – BCAT ({YEAR} Guide)

Bar Course Aptitude Test – BCAT (2023 Guide)

Updated November 14, 2023

For anyone aspiring to be a practicing barrister, the Bar Course Aptitude Test (BCAT) is the first step towards their career goal.

This critical-thinking assessment measures some of the core skills required to succeed in the profession, namely, the ability to process and evaluate information with sound reason, logic and objectivity.

The Bar Standards Board (BSB) introduced the test in 2013 off the back of a report by the Bar Vocational Course Review Group.

This report found students who failed the Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC) did so predominantly due to a lack of critical-thinking ability. In addition, since the BPTC involves group work through role play, those struggling were also found to be restricting the progress of others.

As such, the Bar Course Aptitude Test is now a prerequisite for entry, tightening the admissions process and ensuring only those with the required skills gain acceptance to the BPTC.

What Does the BCAT Measure?

Based on the Watson-Glaser methodology, the BCAT measures a candidate’s ability to:

  • Draw evidence-based conclusions by critically evaluating information
  • Apply logic to separate fact from speculation or assumption
  • Judge arguments from an objective point of view and consider a variety of perspectives

To successfully display these skills, you’ll also need to demonstrate a high level of written language comprehension.

We can break down further what the BCAT measures by applying an approach to critical thinking known as the RED model:

R: Recognizing Assumptions

An assumption is something we take to be true without referring to any evidence by way of support.

A key skill for a practicing barrister, and for passing the BCAT, is recognizing when an assumption is made and questioning it from a variety of perspectives to separate factual evidence from an unsupported claim.

E: Evaluating Arguments

Objectivity is the key skill behind the successful evaluation of an argument. Emotional influence or a preference for an existing point of view can cloud your judgment.

To succeed on the BCAT, you’ll need to judge an argument’s strengths and weaknesses from an unbiased perspective, and with accurate analysis.

D: Drawing Conclusions

The last part of the RED model focuses on your ability to determine what logically follows based on all evidence provided — essentially, what is known as ‘sound judgment’. A key part of this is being flexible with your decision if emerging evidence supports an alternative conclusion.

Though the BCAT exam measures some of the most important skills for the practice of law, it does not assess them all.

For example, the test does not measure your skills in terms of persuasion, advocacy, negotiation or conflict resolution. Nor does it measure your ability to handle the pressures of the profession, like case turnover, long hours and emotional strain.

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What Is the BCAT Test Format?

The Bar Course Aptitude Test consists of 60 multiple-choice questions split across five sections. Details of what each section involves are given below, along with sample BCAT test questions.

A very important point to note about the BCAT is that it is a timed assessment. You’ll have just 55 minutes to complete all 60 tasks, equating to less than one minute per question.

Although this time restraint can significantly add to the pressure, taking plenty of practice tests before sitting the BCAT will be a big help here. Not only will you become more familiar with the test structure and question types, but you’ll also learn to apply your critical-thinking skills at pace.

Section One – Drawing Inferences from Facts

In this section, each question revolves around a short passage of text. Beneath this passage will be a statement that may or may not be a valid inference based on the information provided.

You’ll need to determine the accuracy of the inference by evaluating the evidence in front of you, and choosing from the following options:

  • True
  • Probably true
  • Insufficient data
  • Probably false
  • False
Example Question

A group of 300 students enrolled in science-related degree programs were invited to attend a conference on biophysics. At the conference, 250 students chose to attend a lecture on advancements in computer modeling, whilst the remaining 50 attended a lecture on the study of ecosystems.

Proposed inference 1: All students in attendance were in their final year of study.

Example Question

Proposed inference 2: The majority of students showed a keen interest in computer modeling.

Section Two – Recognizing Assumptions

Here you’ll be presented with a statement and an assumption that may or may not be contained within that statement.

You’ll need to critically analyze the two side by side to determine if the proposed assumption has or has not been made.

Example Question

We need to save on travel costs, so we will book our train tickets in advance.

Proposed assumption 1: Advanced train tickets are cheaper than tickets bought on the day of travel.

Example Question

Proposed assumption 2: Travel by train is the most cost-effective solution.

Section Three – Deductive Reasoning

In section three, the statement provided will contain a series of facts. The accompanying prompt will be a proposed conclusion.

You’ll need to decide whether that proposed conclusion logically follows on from the facts presented.

Example Question

2020 saw the hottest August on record for 20 years, with average highs of 34 degrees.

Proposed conclusion 1: The average temperature for August 2020 was higher than that of August 2019.

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Example Question

Proposed conclusion 2: The maximum temperature reached in August 2020 was 34 degrees.

Section Four – Logical Interpretation

Identifying logical conclusions is also the basis of section four, but this time, instead of evaluating facts, you’ll need to interpret the information given to determine the accuracy of each proposed conclusion.

Example Question

Employees that hold an undergraduate degree earn on average 60% more than those who did not pursue higher education. Graduates from the country’s top ten universities earn on average 55% more than those with an undergraduate degree from another institution.

Proposed conclusion 1: Those with an undergraduate degree from one of the top ten universities have an average income over double that of those who did not pursue higher education.

Example Question

Proposed conclusion 2: Gaining an undergraduate degree leads to a higher salary.

Section Five – Evaluation of Arguments

The final section revolves around the strengths and weaknesses of a series of arguments.

You’ll see a question prompt, followed by several arguments in response to the question. For each, you’ll need to decide whether it is a strong or weak argument.

Example Question

Should all employers offer flexible working hours as part of an employee benefits package?

Proposed argument 1: Yes. Flexible working hours allow employees to manage their professional and personal commitments more effectively. This improved work-life balance leads to increased productivity.

Example Question

Proposed argument 2: Yes. A good employee benefits package will help attract top talent.

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How Is the BCAT Test Scored?

On completion of your BCAT, you’ll immediately receive a score card detailing your performance.

Scores are awarded on a scale of 20 to 80, with the minimum pass mark required currently standing at 45. You’ll need to answer over half of the 60 questions correctly to pass the assessment.

You’ll be designated a score category relating to your mark:

  • Fail = 20–44
  • Pass (Marginal) = 45–49
  • Pass = 50–60
  • Pass (Strong) = 61–80

This information is for your eyes only. The BSB requires that you pass the BCAT to gain acceptance to the BPTC, but it does not require you to declare your exact score or score category.

That said, your score category provides a good indication of how you’re likely to perform on the BPTC.

According to BCAT test scoring information from the BSB, score categories strongly indicate the following:

  • Fail – Students that achieve a score of 44 or below are likely to find core components of the BPTC beyond their ability. They typically demonstrate below-average critical-thinking skills and are therefore not well suited to life as a practicing barrister.

  • Pass (Marginal) – Students in this category do demonstrate a level of critical-thinking ability but are less advanced than many of their peers. They’re likely to find the level of reasoning required a challenge and will need to work extremely hard to bring their skill level up to standard. Just under half of those in this score category fail the BPTC.

  • Pass – Those in the pass category apply a very acceptable level of critical thinking and are generally capable of dealing with the complex analysis required throughout the BPTC. A large percentage of these students go on to achieve a ‘Very Competent’ grade on completion of the course.

  • Pass (Strong) – Anyone scoring 61 or above on the BCAT meets or exceeds expectations in terms of critical thinking. These are the students most likely to excel on the BPTC, with most achieving either a ‘Very Competent’ or ‘Outstanding’ grade.

With the above information in mind, it’s well worth considering your score category before progressing with your application.

Do You Need to Pass the BCAT Test to Enroll on the BPTC?

In short, yes. The Bar Course Aptitude Test is now a prerequisite for entry to the BPTC, and anyone who fails the test will be required to resit.

Before enrollment, you’ll need to submit proof of your pass to your BPTC provider, so make sure you collect this documentation from the assessment center on the day of your test, as you’ll have to pay an additional fee for a replacement.

Sitting and Resitting the BCAT Test

As mentioned, you must pass your BCAT to enroll on the BPTC.

Each year, the BSB issues specific windows in which the test can be taken, typically running from January to March, with a second window later in the year.

The BSB updates its website with exact dates as they are announced.

It is advisable to schedule your test early, as slots often book up fast. Since you cannot enroll on the BPTC until you have passed your BCAT, you’ll also need to consider the possibility of a retake.

The BCAT can only be taken at an approved Pearson VUE test center.

To register, you must first obtain a BPTC application reference number, and then schedule and pay for your BCAT online through the Pearson VUE website.

The test costs £150 if taken within the UK or EU, and £170 if taken outside of these areas.

Test centers are located around the world, and you can find details of those closest to you through the locate a test center section on the Pearson VUE website.

In the event you need to resit the BCAT, you can do so twice within the calendar year of your original test (so a maximum of three attempts in any given year). Resits are subject to the same fees, and there must be a minimum of 48 hours between each assessment taken.

You can cancel or reschedule your test without incurring any extra charges, provided you do so at least 24 hours before your scheduled date. Any changes made after this will result in the loss of your test fee.

How to Prepare for the BCAT Test in November 2023

As with any form of psychometric assessment, the BCAT exam measures your innate skill rather than your knowledge, so it can be tricky to prepare for.

That said, there are steps you can take to give yourself the best chance of performing well:

Step 1. Schedule Your Test Wisely

As mentioned previously, it’s important to book your BCAT early. This will ensure you get your desired slot, as well as allowing time to resit the exam before BPTC enrollment if required.

When choosing your test date, consider other commitments you may have, such as university coursework or exams.

Try to ensure these don’t overlap, as you’ll want a clear head that’s fully focused on the BCAT itself.

Step 2. Take Plenty of Practice Tests

Good BCAT test preparation all comes down to practice. The more familiar you are with the types of questions you’ll face, the more confident you’ll be on test day.

When taking a BCAT sample test, try focusing on the following:

  • The content of each question – All the information you need to answer a question correctly will be provided in the prompt text. This will include key words and phrases relevant to the proposed conclusion, inference, argument or assumption, depending on the question type. If you can identify these early on, you’ll be able to respond much quicker.

  • Putting existing knowledge aside – As you work through a BCAT practice test, remember that what you know, or think you know, is irrelevant. Your task is to think objectively, so get used to ignoring your gut instinct and focus solely on what’s in front of you.

  • Time spent on each question – This is important. Remember that you only have 55 minutes to complete your BCAT, so practice working at a steady pace without compromising on the accuracy of your answers.

You’ll find a BCAT practice test on the Pearson VUE website, and there are plenty of sample critical-thinking tests available online.

Step 3. Read Complex Texts

Although you can’t revise for the BCAT as such, reading complex texts is the next best thing. This will help you digest information more effectively, both in terms of speed and understanding.

As you do so, focus on the fundamentals of sound reasoning and training your mind to approach information critically. As critical-thinking forms the basis of the BCAT exam, we’ve provided some tips for honing this skill below.

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BCAT Test - Tips for Improving Critical Thinking

Improving your logical reasoning skills is a major part of BCAT test preparation. Try using the following tips to become a more advanced critical thinker:

  • Assess the validity of information by asking questions – What evidence have you been presented with? Does it stand up to factual scrutiny? It’s often too easy to take things at face value, but the more you question what’s perceived to be true, the more critical your thinking will become.

  • Identify and evaluate assumptions made – For every passage of text you read, note down the assumptions within it and those you assume to be behind it. Are they valid assumptions? How do they affect the presented argument? Would it hold true if the assumption had not been made? Rating them in this manner will improve your ability to accept or reject assumptions based on their credibility.

  • Look out for methods of persuasion – Ask yourself if the author is playing on your emotions to steer you towards a specific conclusion. What information have they included, and what have they left out? Does it hint at a hidden agenda? Evaluate the message objectively, and if something doesn’t fit, seek out supporting information.

  • Consider alternative sides of an argument – Looking at things from a variety of perspectives is key to critical thinking, especially when those perspectives don’t align with your own. Reading the same story in several different news publications is good practice here. Consider the different language used, the direction of the narrative, and how this impacts the conclusions that can be drawn.

  • Turn your thoughts into visuals – If you’re a visual learner, in particular, you may find it useful to map out your findings with pictures, diagrams or charts. Think of it as akin to a police investigation, where all parts of the puzzle are laid out visually. This helps you constructively organize your thoughts and make connections that weren’t otherwise apparent.

  • Constructively evaluate multiple conclusions – Based on all the evidence at your disposal, construct several conclusions that could be drawn, then assess their strengths and weaknesses. Who does the given conclusion favor, and what is its potential impact on others? Evaluate their credibility side by side whilst maintaining an impartial outlook.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The Bar Course Aptitude Test (BCAT exam) is a 55-minute multiple-choice timed assessment. There are 60 questions to answer in the test, split into five different sections.

The assessment is designed to determine whether candidates have the skills required for a career as a barrister.

Aptitudes measured in the test include a candidate’s ability to think critically, evaluate information, and solve problems objectively and logically.

You can re-take the BCAT exam up to twice in one calendar year. There must be a minimum of 48 hours between resit attempts.

It is worth remembering that you can only take the BCAT exam during specific test windows. The first test window is typically January – March, with the second running later in the year.

Those looking to enroll in the Bar Professional Training Course must first have passed the Bar Course Aptitude Test (BCAT exam).

You can take the test during one of two test application windows. These windows generally run from January to March, with a second test window running later in the year.

Any candidate attending the BPTC course must first pass the Bar Course Aptitude Test.

When enrolling in the BPTC course, you must show proof that you have passed the Bar Course Aptitude Test.

If you fail the Bar Aptitude Test, you are allowed up to two resit attempts in any one calendar year. All resit attempts are taken at a Pearson VUE test center, and there must be at least 48 hours between any resit attempts.

There are two BCAT test windows; these usually run from January to March, with a second test window later in the year.

All resit attempts are subject to the payment of a test fee: £150 if within the UK or EU, £170 for those outside the UK/EU.

The Bar Course Aptitude Test is generally valid for five years. This is dependent on the date of attainment.

Given the BCAT exam is a requirement for enrolment on the BPTC course, it is worth checking with the Bar Standards Council for confirmation of the validity of your BCAT exam.

To give yourself the best opportunity of passing the BCAT exam, preparation is vital. Ensure you practice as many BCAT tests as you can, this will enable you to become familiar with the format of the BCAT test.

Develop your critical thinking skills and speed of evaluation through reading complex texts. When reading text, refine your logical reasoning skills by considering various perspectives.

When booking your BCAT test, ensure you select a date that will give you enough time to prepare for your exam, given any extracurricular commitments that you have. Also, bear in mind the test window end date if you need to resit the exam.

All Bar Course Aptitude Tests are taken at a Pearson Vue test center.

Those wishing to book a test need to go onto the Pearson Vue website, search for the BCAT course and select their preferred date.

The Bar Standards Board usually runs two BCAT test windows. The first window is generally from January to March, with a second test window running later in the year. Slots get booked up quickly, so those wishing to take the BCAT exam need to schedule their test early.

The BCAT costs £150 for those taking the test within the UK/EU and £170 for those outside the UK/EU.

If you need to reschedule your test date, you can do so without incurring any additional charges so long as this is done at least 24 hours before your test date.

Any reschedules or cancellations within 24 hours of the test date will result in the loss of the test fee.

Scores for the Bar Course Aptitude Test are given as one of four categories.

These categories relate to the mark attained in the test. Fail (20 – 44), marginal pass (45 – 49), pass (50 – 60), strong pass (61 – 80).

Your score will be provided immediately after you have completed the test.

You can resit the BCAT exam twice in any calendar year (three attempts in total). Those resitting the BCAT exam must leave at least 48 hours between attempts.

Re-sits incur a test fee of £150 for those in the UK/EU and £170 for those outside the UK/EU. All test attempts are taken at a Pearson VUE test center and booked via the Pearson VUE website.


As a requirement for enrollment to the BPTC, the Bar Course Aptitude Test is a major step towards your career in law. There may be a lot of pressure associated with it, but solid practice and preparation should stand you in good stead.

It’s also worth noting that the Watson-Glaser methodology behind the BCAT exam forms the basis of pre-employment assessments used by many law firms. By mastering this type of test now, you set yourself up for success in the future.

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